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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 3105-3110

Association of obstructive sleep apnea with nocturnal hypoxemia in metabolic-associated fatty liver disease patients: A cross-sectional analysis of record-based

1 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Arvind Tomar
Consultant, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi - 110 070
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_412_21

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Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often seen among obese individuals and the obesity has a linear association with MAFLD. The contribution of chronic intermittent nocturnal hypoxia of OSA and association of MAFLD with OSA is an unmet need. The present study aimed to determine the etiology, impact and association of OSA severity and nocturnal hypoxemia among patients of Chronic liver disease (CLD). Methods: In this study, analysis of the medical records and clinical details of the patients of CLD who had undergone polysomnography were analyzed after appropriate inclusion in study as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. After assessing the eligibility criteria, a total of 78 patients were included in the final analysis. Nocturnal hypoxemia was gauged from the baseline oxygen saturation record of study. Presence and severity of OSA were graded as per American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. The primary objective of the study was to determine the association between OSA severity and nocturnal hypoxemia to the presence of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Secondary objectives were to assess the association of OSA severity and extent of nocturnal hypoxemia to the BMI and to determine the proportions of NAFLD subjects with OSA. Results: A total of 78 patients were screened, of which only 11 (14.1%) were female. Out of these, 56 (71.8%) were classified to MAFLD group while 22 (28.2%) were to the non-MAFLD group. The patients in MAFLD group with mean age of 56.02 years were older as compared to non-MAFLD with mean age of 51.05 years but that was not statistically different. Patients were categorized into MAFLD (n = 56) and non-MAFLD, representing other etiologies of CLD (n = 22; ethanol, chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV), chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV), cryptogenic, Non-cirrhosis portal fibrosis (NCPF), Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), sarcoidosis, Wilson's disease). The mean BMI was significantly higher in MAFLD in comparison to non-MAFLD (34.51 ± 8.79 vs. 25.47 ± 5.75; P = 0.000) and also the median AHI of MAFLD group was significantly higher than the non-MAFLD 4.95 {(1.85, 25.47) vs. 0.85 (0.30, 2.72) (P value < 0.000)} [Table 1]. Among the desaturation indices, the number of desaturations >3% {median of 122.50 (75.00, 241.25) vs. 63.00 (13.75, 158.00), P value 0.009} and average desaturation {mean of (5.04 ± 2.16) vs. (3.78 ± 1.226)%, P value 0.002} were significantly higher in MAFLD versus non-MAFLD group [Table 2]. The AHI and all desaturation parameters, although not statistically significant, were worst in Child B [Table 3]. Conclusion: MAFLD patients have higher prevalence and greater severity of OSA and worse nocturnal desaturation parameters as compared to non-MAFLD patients. OSA is independent of obesity among patients of CLD, but prevalent among NAFLD group. Further prospective studies are needed among MAFLD and OSA patients to elucidate the mechanism linking pathophysiology of OSA-MAFLD and guide therapy.

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