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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 2279-2283

The adverse effects of Ketamine on Procedural Sedation and Analgesia (PSA) in the Emergency Department


Department of Emergency Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Priya Ganesan
Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2140_20

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Background: Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in the emergency department (ED) is mainly used for wound irrigation, reduction of fractures, and wound closure. Ketamine is one of the most commonly used drugs for PSA in the ED. The study was conducted in the ED of a large tertiary care hospital in southern India to evaluate the adverse effects of Ketamine on PSA. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study performed in the ED for 6 months (October 2019–March 2020) in 151 patients who required Ketamine for PSA. Titrated doses of Ketamine was administered in all patients; hemodynamic variables and adverse events were recorded at timed intervals. Results: During the study period, a total of 151 patients in the ED required PSA. The mean age of the study Cohort was 37 ± 15 years, and males accounted for 83%. All individuals obtained adequate sedation and pain relief. It was found that the incidence of adverse reactions to Ketamine was higher in young people (18- to 40-year-old), which was 63%. The most common adverse reaction in the study population was 39 cases of hypertension (44.8%), followed by vomiting in 25 cases (28.7%) and delusion in 6 cases (4%). There was no significant adverse effect in any patients which necessitated admission. Conclusion: Ketamine is a drug with good analgesic, sedative properties and has been shown to have a good safety profile with minimal adverse events for use as PSA in ED. Side effects were most common in the younger adult age group and hypertension was the most common side effect.


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