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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 2171-2176

Oral health status and treatment need in geriatric patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment and dementia: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
2 Department of Dentistry, Nalanda Medical College Hospital Agamkuan, Patna, Bihar, India
3 Department of Dentistry (MDS, Oral Medicine and Radiology, GDC Calicut), Consultant and Dental Surgeon, Shree Balaji Hospital, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India
4 Private Dental Practitioner, Patna, Bihar, India
5 Dental Surgeon, Government of Bihar, Bihar, India
6 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sathyabama Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
7 Private Practitioner and Consultant Oral Surgeon Thandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bhupender S Negi
Department of Dentistry (MDS, Oral Medicine and Radiology, GDC Calicut), Consultant Dental Surgeon, Shree Balaji Hospital, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2481_20

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Background: Health can be defined as more than an absence or lack of disease. It is generally related to personal, physical, social, along with spiritual wellness. However, the importance of good health is comparable with a progressive physical and cognitive limitations due to aging and hence, its clear definition is not possible. Hence, most of the important aims or goals in aging are unrelated to finding a cure but rather toward achieving an optimal function. Thus, a healthy aging process that encompasses physical, mental, psychological, and spiritual well-being is always much desired. Aim and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study is to assess the oral health status and degree of cognitive impairment along with dementia, if present. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective and cross-sectional analysis comprising of 300 study participants of which 150 are males while 150 are females. Cognitive ability is assessed using the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) scoring test. A score value lesser than or equal to 23 is considered as low, whereas a score of 24 and above represents normal cognitive abilities. Subjects with low score are selected for the study. Oral health status is assessed by examining a) total numbers of teeth present; b) presence or absence of denture use; and c) capacity for masticatory or chewing ability (recorded as yes or no). Demographic variables parameters include age, gender, and presence of smoking habit. Clinical parameters or variables are analyzed by employing the independent t-test and Chi-square test. Pearson's correlation analysis is used to test a correlation between impairment of cognitive capacity, oral health status, masticatory capability, and use of dentures, if present. Two-tailed t-test is used to derive a P value for significance. Results: The total numbers of teeth present are significantly correlated with a lower SMMSE score (R = + 0.56; P = 0.03) while a significant association is noted between ability for mastication and lower SMMSE score (P = 0.05). Conclusion: This study concluded that loss of cognition or dementia is closely related to a poor oral health status.

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