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 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1731-1736  

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding wound care among general population in Aseer region


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2 Medical Student, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission27-Jan-2020
Date of Decision24-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance24-Dec-2020
Date of Web Publication29-Apr-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Muneer Jan
Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2331_20

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  Abstract 

Background: Wound care is observed to be one of the major challenge in health-care system. Wound infection is one of the major issues in medical treatment. There is limited information regarding knowledge and attitude of patients regarding care of traumatic wound. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding wound care among general population in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was a questionnaire-based study conducted on general population from time period from September 2020 to November 2020. The demographic data collected were age, gender distribution, marital status, residence, job profile, income, education, habit of smoking and any comorbidities. To analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of general population regarding wound care, 28 well-constructed questions were framed and asked. The response to all these questions was recorded and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 897 participants were included in the study. In total, 56.74% subjects of age group 41–60 years of age. In around 80% participants, no co-morbidities were observed. Around 29% participants had previous experience of surgical wound, with most common wound site being abdomen. The most common symptom in around 58% participants was excessive bleeding. Use of Alcohol swab and dry gauze were commonly used by participants as wound care measures. Conclusion: We observed that knowledge, attitude and practices followed by patients were not up to the standard. As patients' knowledge, good attitude and practices are important in implementing newer management technique; thus, we advice to take necessary steps to improve the attitude and knowledge of general public.

Keywords: Aseer, attitude, general population, knowledge, practices, wound care


How to cite this article:
Jan M, Almutairi KH, Aldugman MA, Althomali RN, Almujary FM, Abu Mughaedh NA, Alhadi LN. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding wound care among general population in Aseer region. J Family Med Prim Care 2021;10:1731-6

How to cite this URL:
Jan M, Almutairi KH, Aldugman MA, Althomali RN, Almujary FM, Abu Mughaedh NA, Alhadi LN. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding wound care among general population in Aseer region. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 May 18];10:1731-6. Available from: https://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2021/10/4/1731/314933




  Introduction Top


Wound injury is a frequent event with the incidence of up to 50 million people reported worldwide till 2015.[1] In emergency departments (ED), more than 6 million lacerations are treated each year in the United States.[2] Most common cause of wound injury is road traffic accidents, systemic problems like Diabetes mellitus, etc. Inappropriate management of wound injuries can affect health of individuals. Worldwide around 10% of mortality and 12% of morbidity has been reported with wound Injuries.[3]

Wound care is observed to be one of the major challenge in health-care system. Wound infection is one of the major issues in medical treatment. There is limited information regarding knowledge and attitude of patients regarding care of traumatic wound. Nowadays, it is required that patients should know how to take care of wound injuries. Pieper B, et al.[4] has observed that around 38.2% to 58.7% of patients returning from hospitals did not know how to take care of their wounds. If the wound is not properly taken care of at home, it can get infected (3% to 15%).[5]

Different etiological factors causing wound infection are poor general health, smoking, and corticosteroid. Various signs and symptoms of wound infection are swelling, pain, fever and purulent exudate.[6] Patients with inadequate knowledge about wound care can lead to consequences like healthcare burden, financial impact and reduced quality of life. Social networking is playing an important role in increasing awareness among patients related to effect of various factors on wound healing. Very limited studies are available in the literature, regarding assessment of knowledge and attitude of patients abound caring wound injuries.[4],[7],[8]

Thus, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding wound care among general population in Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia.


  Materials and Method Top


This cross-sectional study was a questionnaire-based study conducted from time period from September 2020 to November 2020. The self-administered structured questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables, information regarding factors affecting wound healing and wound care. Validity of questionnaire was assessed and was observed to be appropriate (α = 0.84). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethics committee of the institute (ECM#2020-1210). Informed written consent was obtained from all patients prior to their enrollment in this study. The demographic data collected was age, gender distribution, marital status, residence, job profile, income, education, habit of smoking and any comorbidities.

To analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of general population regarding wound care, 28 well-constructed questions were framed and asked. The response to all these questions was recorded. General characteristics like type, site, source, signs and symptoms of wound care, were recorded by asking questions with different options. Various factors affecting wound care were analysed by asking questions with three options of “agree”, “disagree” and “don't know”.

The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using IBM SPSS version 20.0 software. Descriptive statistics i.e. mean, standard deviation, frequencies and percentages were computed.


  Results Top


Demographic data was recorded in terms of age, gender distribution, marital status, residence, job profile, income, education, habit of smoking and any co-morbidities [Table 1]. A total of 897 participants were included in the study. 56.74% subjects of age group 41-60 years of age. 92.084% subjects were of Aseer region. Maximum number of participants 39.353% were civil servants and 51.17% subjects were with bachelor's degree. 52.95% participants were earning around 5000-10000 sr. Habit of smoking was observed in only 6.9% participants and 88.0713% were non-smoker. In around 80% participants, no co-morbidities were observed. The most common was diabetes mellitus, followed by hypertension, asthma, arthritis etc.
Table 1: Demographic characteristics

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[Table 2] shows the responses to 28 questions asked to access the knowledge, attitude and practices followed by general population for wound care. Around 29% participants had previous experience of surgical wound, with most common wound site being abdomen. Most of the participants, got immediate wound care after getting injured. The most common symptom in around 58% participants was excessive bleeding. Most of the participants got information about home wound care through health-care workers. Most of the participants agree with the fact that good nutrition and hand hygiene was essential for wound care. Many participants agree with the fact that smoking, perfume, honey, salted water, incense, tetanus toxoid and use of antibiotics can affect wound healing. Most of the participants did not believe in the use of Sabkha, Vaseline, coffee beans, and Zamzam water for wound healing. Use of Alcohol swab and dry gauze were commonly used by participants as wound care measures.
Table 2: Response to questions

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  Discussion Top


A wound can be defined as disruption or damage to the normal anatomical structure thus interrupting physiological functions.[9] Normal wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that involve a series of events, including bleeding, coagulation and initiation of an acute inflammatory response in relation to the initial injury. The inflammatory response initiates the process of regeneration, migration and proliferation of connective tissue and parenchyma cells, that in turn starts the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Then, the deposition of collagen; and remodelling of new parenchymal and connective tissue starts.[10]

Wound healing always remains a demanding clinical problem. An infected wound because of inadequate knowledge regarding wound care can increase damaging effects to patient and society. Disparity caused by infected wound can lead to reduction in functioning of individual, thus reducing his earning capacity. This directly and indirectly affects the overall health-care cost of country, thus affecting economy.

It has been observed that wound infection is common cause of morbidity and mortality among general population. Thus, an efficient management is required for proper healing of wound.[10] It is essential that general public should have adequate knowledge and awareness with safe practices regarding wound care.[11] Nowadays efforts have been made in educating general population about home wound care, so that consequences of wound infection can be avoided.

We observed very few research studies regarding assessment of attitude and knowledge of general population regarding wound care. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of general population in relation to wound care.

In our study most of the participants were females. Similar finding was observed in a study by Agale SV in 2013,[12] done in Iorland which showed that the proportion of the women were twice more likely to be affected than men. In our study surgical wound was most prevalent and site of wound was abdomen. The results were in contrast to study by Kumarasinghe SPW et al. 2004[13] who found that diabetic wound was most common, with foot being the most common site.

It was observed that any treatment is successful if patient compliance is good. Coyer et al.[14] in 2005 advocated that inadequate knowledge of patients regarding wound care can directly affect the success of treatment. Therefore it is highly important to assess the knowledge and attitude of patients regarding wound care so that we can take steps to improve their knowledge if it is lacking.[14]

We observed that many patients in our study lack the adequate knowledge regarding factors affecting the wound care and how to manage them adequately. Thus we must take necessary steps to educate general population regarding wound care and what kind of practices they have to follow at home after surgical interventions.


  Conclusion Top


Various types of wounds have been observed in general population in our study. The most common being surgical wound. We assessed knowledge and attitude of general public and practices they follow for wound care. In our study, knowledge, attitude and practices followed by patients were not up to the standard. As patients' knowledge, good attitude and practices are important in implementing newer management technique, thus we advice to take necessary steps to improve the attitude and knowledge of general public.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. 2015. [2020-01-22]. Global status report on road safety 2015 http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/189242/1/9789241565066_eng.pdf?ua=1.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Nawar EW, Niska RW, Xu J. National hospital ambulatory medical care survey: 2005 emergency department summary. Adv Data 2007;29:1-32.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Bhalla K, Harrison JE, Shahraz S, Fingerhut LA. Global burden of disease injury expert group availability and quality of cause-of-death data for estimating the global burden of injuries. Bull World Health Organ 2010;88:831-8C.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Pieper B, Sieggreen M, Nordstrom CK, Freeland B, Kulwicki P, Frattaroli M, et al. Discharge knowledge and concerns of patients going home with a wound. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2007;34:245-53.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Quinn JV, Polevoi SK, Kohn MA. Traumatic lacerations: What are the risks for infection and has the 'golden period' of laceration care disappeared? Emerg Med J 2014;31:96-100.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Lewis S, Dirksen S, Heitkemper M, Bucher L, Harding M. Medical Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problem. St. Louis: Mosby; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kuan YT, Wang TF, Guo CY, Tang FI, Hou IC. Wound care knowledge, attitudes, and practices and mobile health technology use in the home environment: Cross-sectional survey of social network users. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020;8:e15678.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Chen Y, Wang Y, Chen W, Smith M, Huang H, Huang L. The effectiveness of a health education intervention on self-care of traumatic wounds. J Clin Nurs 2012;22:2499-508.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Nunan R, Harding KG, Martin P. Clinical challenges of chronic wounds: Searching for an optimal animal model to recapitulate their complexity. Dis Model Mech 2014;7:1205-13.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Velnar T, Bailey T, Smrkolj V. The wound healing process: An overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms. J Int Med Res 2009;37:1528-42.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Flanagan M. (2004). Barriers to the implementation of best practice in wound care. Wounds UK, 74-84 at http://www.woundsinternational.com/media/issues/123/files/content_87.pdf.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Agale SV. Chronic Leg Ulcers: Epidemiology, Aetiopathogenesis, and Management. Ulcers. Hindawi Publishing Corporation: London; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kumarasinghe SP. Wound care in Sri Lanka: Our patients deserve better care. Ceylon Med J 2004;49:3-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Coyer, Fiona M, Edwards, Helen E, Finlayson, Kathleen J. National Institute for Clinical Studies Report for Phase 1, Evidence Uptake Network: Best Practice Community Care for Clients with Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers. Brisbane, QLD: Queensland University of Technology; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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  Introduction
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