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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1687-1693

The utility of Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale amongst patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM): An experience from a teaching hospital in southern India

1 Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK
2 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Medical Statistics Team, Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK
4 Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
5 JJR Macleod Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, David Anderson Building, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hesarghatta S Asha
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College, Vellore - 632 004, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1891_20

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of diabetes-specific psychological distress (DSPD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the “Problem areas in diabetes” (PAID) scale at a teaching hospital in southern India. Other objectives included observing the relationship between socio-demographic factors and DSPD and, finally exploring the level of acceptance of the PAID scale by Asian–Indian patients. Methods: The patients with T2DM aged >18 years attending the diabetes outpatient clinic were recruited. They completed two sets of questionnaires; PAID and a satisfactory questionnaire, which included socio-demographic characteristics and questions relating to the acceptance of PAID. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata 13.1 and Excel. Results: A total of 253 questionnaires were completed, including 157 (62.1%) male and 96 (37.9%) female patients. The prevalence of DSPD was 32.8% (83/253). Younger age (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.36–9.80) and presence of retinopathy (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.12–6.04) were significantly associated with DSPD. However, it was observed that one-third of the patients had an elevated level of distress regardless of socio-demographic or clinical factors. PAID was well accepted by the participants and 84.6% (214/253) were pleased to complete it again. Conclusion: About one-third of the patients with T2DM had DSPD. Psychological distress was higher in the younger age group and those with retinopathy. PAID is an easy, well-accepted questionnaire and would serve as a useful tool to screen for DSPD.

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