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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 832-837

Efficacy of dexmedetomidine and ketamine addition to bupivacaine 0.25% by epidural method in reducing postoperative pain in patients undergoing femur fracture surgery

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Orthopedics, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
3 Department of Surgery, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Alireza Kamali
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1506_20

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Background and Aim: One of the most complex medical problems is pain, that due to inappropriate management of patients after surgery could cause various side effects on the psychological, physiological, and metabolic state of the patients. The natural duration of analgesia can be increased by adding new efficient adjuvant. The present study is mainly aimed to investigate the differences between the epidural dexmedetomidine and ketamine effectiveness when administered as an adjuvant to epidural 0.25% bupivacaine for improving the postoperative analgesia duration. Methods: In the present double-blind clinical study, 105 patients of the age range of 40–85 years were selected for elective femoral surgery and then was divided into three of ketamine, dexmedetomidine, and control randomly. The scores of postoperative pain were evaluated in accordance with the visual Analogue Scale (VAS) criteria and the duration of analgesia and the amount of analgesics consumption were recorded. Results: The mean pain VAS score during the first day after the surgery and recovery of patients in the dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower in comparison with two other groups (p = 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in the mean VAS score of Paine during 12 and 24 hours after the operation (P ≥ 0.05). Comparisons among these groups demonstrated that the mean on opioid administration during the operation and 24 hours after that was significantly higher in both groups of ketamine and control in comparison with the dexmedetomidine group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01). Besides, analgesia duration among patients belonged to the dexmedetomidine group was notably lower in comparison with two other groups (P = 0.001). Conclusion: In epidural anesthesia cases adding ketamine and dexmedetomidine as adjuvants to the solution of bupivacaine 0.25%, could increase the duration of analgesia and reduce the consumption of analgesics, which is more in the dexmedetomidine group when compared with ketamine.

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