Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 60
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 712-717  

Knowledge, attitude, and practice study regarding cholera among the people in Jazan city, KSA


1 Lecturer in Clinical Pharmacy Department, Jazsn University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Peadiatric, King Fahad Hospiat, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
3 Pharmacist, King Fahad Central Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission23-May-2020
Date of Decision02-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance31-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication27-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Eman Merghani Ali
Lecturer in Clinical Pharmacy Department, Jazsn University, Jazan
Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_965_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Cholera is a contagious infection that can be fatal; in spite of this, it can be easily prevented by sticking to proper hygienic measures as well as administering cholera vaccine. However, prevention of cholera is highly dependent on the knowledge and attitude of the general population toward the symptoms and preventive measures of cholera, which is unclear in medical literature. Objective: This survey analysis aims to explore the level of knowledge as well as attitude and practice of people in Jazan, Saudi Arbaia toward cholera infections. Design and Setting: A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed via online link to individuals living in Jazan region in Saudi Arabia. The survey included questions on knowledge about cholera symptoms, etiology, and prevention as well as attitude and practices of the responders on this type of infection in addition to sociodemographic data. Data analysis was done through SPSS program version 24. Results: 400 participants responded to this questionnaire. The mean score for knowledge section was 1.86 ± 0.990, for practice section was 5.07 ± 1.353, and for attitude section was 6.14 ± 2.346, all of them were below average rating. There was statistically significant difference (P-value = 0.003) between different educational levels, with a positive correlation between educational level and level of knowledge about cholera. There was a statistically significant difference (P-value = 0.034) between different genders. Females showed a significantly improved practice towards cholera infection. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the public in Saudi Arabia is poor. Also, the attitudes and practices of people in Jazan area, Saudi Arabia is considered unsatisfactory. Further studies in other regions of Saudi Arabia are highly recommended.

Keywords: Attitude, cholera, knowledge, practice


How to cite this article:
Ali EM, Mohamed MB, Tawhari M. Knowledge, attitude, and practice study regarding cholera among the people in Jazan city, KSA. J Family Med Prim Care 2021;10:712-7

How to cite this URL:
Ali EM, Mohamed MB, Tawhari M. Knowledge, attitude, and practice study regarding cholera among the people in Jazan city, KSA. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Apr 10];10:712-7. Available from: https://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2021/10/2/712/310324




  Introduction Top


Cholera is defined as an acute bacterial infection that is caused by Vibrio Cholera. The main clinical feature for cholera is the watery diarrhea.[1] Although the causative bacteria has above 200 serotypes, only two serotypes are prevalent in poor sanitary and hygienic conditions which are the O1 and O 139.[2] These particular two strains have been linked to the cholera outbreaks globally.

Cholera infections are commonly severe, and highly virulent.[3] Additionally, cholera outbreaks usually occur in areas which have contaminated water or food because of poor sanitary measures.[4] The bacteria is transmitted along the gastrointestinal tract through contaminated food or water. Vibrio cholera produces cholera toxin, which causes the clinical symptoms of the infection.[5] In addition to the watery diarrhea, other symptoms included vomiting and abdominal colic. Furthermore, the infection affects all age groups.[6]

Diagnosis of cholera depends mainly on culturing the causative bacteria from a stool sample of the patient.[7] Rapid testing can also provide a preliminary result to start a targeted treatment plan.[8] The management of cholera consists of antibiotics for the infection, and rehydrating measures for the vomiting and diarrhea through electrolytes and fluids administration.[9]

However, the key to prevent cholera outbreaks is through improving public hygiene, water sanitation, and sewage systems. Additionally, cholera vaccination can play an important role in infection control and prevention.[10],[11] Recent reports have demonstrated that the annual estimates for cholera infections globally are up to 4 million patients, with up to 143,000 annual mortality.[12] Accordingly, cholera represents a global public health hazard and a sign of under development for a country. Cholera outbreaks affected multiple countries over the past years mainly in Asia and Africa, such as India, Sudan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.[13]

Another contributing factor for the spread of cholera is the poor knowledge and awareness of the public about its modes of transmission and early measures of diagnosis and treatment of cholera symptoms. Hence, it is important to understand the knowledge and awareness of the public toward the disease to reduce its transmission.[14] Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the knowledge and attitude of the general public in Jazan city, Saudi Arabia toward cholera infection and its prevention.


  Materials and Methods Top


Study design

This is a cross-sectional, qualitative prospective study that was carried out in Jazan city hospital, Saudi Arabia through distribution of an online survey to individuals living in the city. Only participants who filled the survey were included in the analysis.

Data collection

A self-developed questionnaire was distributed to subjects living in Jazan city in an online link. The survey was mainly focusing on collecting demographic data, questions on knowledge, attitude and practices about cholera infection and prevention.

Statistical analyses

Data were represented in terms of frequencies and valid percentages for categorical variables. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare means among different groups. All P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science; IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) was used to perform all statistical calculations, version 24 for Microsoft Windows.

Ethical considerations

Institutional research ethics board approval was acquired from Ethical committee before conducting any study procedure.


  Results Top


Four hundred participants responded to this online questionnaire in this study. Only participants who completed all the questions in the survey were included. Sociodemographics of participants and analysis of questionnaire is shown below.

General characters of responders

Out of 400 participants, age was subcategorized into four groups on a scale of 20 years, starting with less than 20 years old and ending with more than 61 years old. Most of the responders (55.5%) belonged to the age group between 20 and 40 years old. On the other hand, the age group who were greater than 61 years old had the least number of responses, with only 2.3% of responses.

Turning to gender of participants, males constituted 44.3% of participants while females were 55.8%. Educational level was also evaluated. 49% had a university degree or higher while 5.5% were illiterate. All sociodemographic data is shown in details through [Table 1].
Table 1: Socio-demographic characters of participants

Click here to view


Etiology and symptoms of cholera

Participants were asked about the symptoms and causes of cholera infection. 43.8% of the responders knew that the causative organism of cholera is bacteria, while 9% of responders thought it was a parasitic infection. The responses of participants are shown in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Causes of cholera infection

Click here to view


Regarding cholera symptoms, 55.5% of the participants thought that the most common symptom for cholera infection is frequent loose stool; while only 16.3% of participants knew that the most common symptom is acute watery diarrhea as shown in [Figure 2].
Figure 2: The most common symptom of cholera

Click here to view


Knowledge about cholera infection

Responders were asked questions to evaluate their knowledge toward cholera infection and its prevention. 52.3% of participants knew that cholera can be transmitted by contaminated water, while 64.8% believed that cholera is not transmitted by contaminated food and more than 70% thought that it is spread by flies, mosquitoes, poor hygiene, and poor sanitation. Moreover, more than 90% of responders believed that cholera cannot be contracted and does not spread by others. All responses are detailed in [Table 2].
Table 2: Responses to knowledge questions

Click here to view


Attitude about cholera infection

The questionnaire included questions about the attitude toward cholera infection. More than half the participants thought that cholera is contagious and can be fatal, although it can be prevented. Also, they believed that cholera can be contracted by travelling to a place with cholera outbreak, and that cultural background can influence the cholera spreading. Additionally, 65.3% believed that cholera vaccination can prevent infection. All responses are shown in [Table 3].
Table 3: Responses to attitude questions

Click here to view


Practice about cholera infection

The final section in the questionnaire included questions to evaluate the practice of the general public toward cholera infection. Only 81.8% mentioned that they will go to the hospital if they get cholera. While the responses to the rest of the questions revealed that more than half of the participants had poor attitude toward good hygiene and sanitation. All answers are detailed in [Table 4].
Table 4: Responses to practice questions

Click here to view


Comparison of level of knowledge among different sociodemographic variables

The total score for knowledge section was calculated and compared over different sociodemographic variables using one-way ANOVA at level of significance P value <0.05. The mean score for knowledge section was 1.86 ± 0.990, with a minimum score of zero and a maximum score of six.

The comparison revealed that there was statistically significant difference (P-value = 0.003) between different educational levels. A direct and positive correlation was found between educational level and level of knowledge about cholera, where individuals with higher level of education showed a higher level of knowledge.

Although mean score for knowledge section in different age group and gender were below average, the difference among groups did not show a statistical significance as shown in [Table 5].
Table 5: Comparison of level of knowledge compared over different socio-demographic variables

Click here to view


Comparison of practice among different socio-demographic variables

The total score for practice questions was calculated and compared over different sociodemographic variables using one-way ANOVA at level of significance P value <0.05. The mean score for practice section was 5.07 ± 1.353, with a minimum score of two and a maximum score of 10.

The comparison revealed that there was statistically significant difference (P-value = 0.034) between different genders. Females showed a significantly improved practice toward cholera infection compared to males.

Although mean score for practice section in different age group and educational level were below average, the difference among groups did not show a statistical significance as shown in [Table 6].
Table 6: Comparison of practice compared over different socio-demographic variables

Click here to view


Comparison of attitude among different sociodemographic variables

The total score for attitude questions was calculated and compared over different sociodemographic variables using one-way ANOVA at level of significance P value <0.05. The mean score for attitude section was 6.14 ± 2.346, with a minimum score of zero and a maximum score of 13.

The comparison revealed that the mean score for attitude section in different age group, genders, and educational level were below average, and the difference among groups did not show a statistical significance as shown in [Table 7].
Table 7: Comparison of attitude compared over different socio-demographic variables

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Cholera is considered a highly contagious infection that can lead to an epidemic outbreak. This type of infection is more common in areas with inadequate sanitary facilities and inadequate hygienic measures. Hence, it is mandatory to improve the knowledge and awareness of the public toward cholera infection and the actions to prevent cholera infection.

The present study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge, practice, and attitude of Saudi population living in Jazan city toward cholera infection etiology, manifestations, and prevention. The study revealed that the mean score for knowledge section was 1.86 ± 0.990, for practice section was 5.07 ± 1.353, and for attitude section was 6.14 ± 2.346, where all of them were below average rating.

Moreover, there was statistically significant difference (P-value = 0.003) between different educational levels, with a direct and positive correlation between educational level and level of knowledge about cholera. Also, there was a statistically significant difference (P-value = 0.034) between different genders. Females showed a significantly improved practice toward cholera infection.

These findings represent a guidance for primary care clinicians such as general practitioners and family medicine physicians during their practice particularly in developing countries. It can provide them with an understanding for the community perception to the risks and mode of transmission of cholera. This understanding can improve the communication of doctors to patients and informing them with important information that the patients might not know about. Furthermore, this would guide public health decision makers in the development of national awareness campaigns for the public to improve their knowledge and reduce the spreading of the disease, especially in pandemics.

Level of knowledge and attitude of the general population toward cholera infection have been studied in different setting. In Tanzania, Nauja et al.[15] explored the knowledge and practice of the community in Tanzania toward cholera prevention and spreading.

Nauja et al.[15] showed that the level of knowledge of the Tanzani population is inferior, with recommendation for awareness programs to improve this level. Also, the study highlighted the limited resources available in the country for proper sanitation and hygiene. These findings were also compliant with the results of Williams et al.[16]

Although the present study did not investigate the resources available in Saudi Arabia, yet the findings of Nauja et al.[15] are compliant with the current study in terms of the reduced level of knowledge and practice of the pubic toward cholera infection and its preventive measures.

Moreover, another study from Bangladesh performed by Wahed et al.[17] examined the knowledge and attitude of the public toward cholera infection and its prevention using cholera vaccine. The study included 2,830 participant who responded to the questionnaire used in this study.

Wahed et al.[17] revealed a significant correlation between level of knowledge and age, gender, and level of education. Similarly, the present study showed a significantly positive relationship between level of awareness toward cholera and level of education, where more educated individuals had a better level of knowledge about cholera.

Furthermore, Ncube et al.[18] evaluated the knowledge and practice of the community in South Africa toward cholera prevention. Ninety six participants were included in this study. Ncube et al.[18] showed that the level of knowledge of the South African population about cholera was below the satisfactory level, and that the community is not prepared for the prevention of the disease. These findings were compliant with Tappero et al.[19]

In the present study, the sample size recruited was higher than that recruited by Ncube et al.[18] which increases the reliability of the current work. Additionally, the present study also showed a low level of knowledge about cholera infection and its prevention.

Additionally, the present study had some limitations; it included individuals in only one city in Saudi Arabia which could affect the external validity of the results. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Saudi population toward cholera infections.


  Conclusion Top


The level of knowledge of the public in Saudi Arabia is poor and requires serious actions to be improved. Also, the attitudes and practices of people in Jazan area, Saudi Arabia are considered unsatisfactory.

Therefore, policy makers in Saudi Arabia should take into consideration these findings and implement awareness campaigns and educational programs in schools, clubs, and universities to improve the level of knowledge toward the importance of proper sanitation, as well as vaccination against cholera, and to warn from the hazards of cholera outbreaks.

Further similar studies in other areas in Saudi Arabia are highly recommended to figure out the real picture for knowledge about cholera in Saudi Arabia.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Elimian KO, Mezue S, Musah A, Oyebanji O, Fall IS, Yennan S, et al. What are the drivers of recurrent cholera transmission in Nigeria? Evidence from a scoping review. BMC Public Health 2020;20:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Al-Ghabban SI, Ubaid HA, Abd-Aun SI. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of women regarding waterborne diseases and cholera in rural areas in Holy Kerbala. Presented at 1st International Medical Sciences Congress (IMSC), Dec 2016 (Vol. 7, p. 9).  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Tutu RA, Gupta S, Busingye JD. Examining health literacy on cholera in an endemic community in Accra, Ghana: A cross-sectional study. Trop Med Health 2019;47:31.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Alkhaledi FA. Knowledge, attitude and Practice on cholera epidemic in AL-Diwaniya province. Al-Qadisiyah Med J 2016;12:98-105.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Deen J, Mengel MA, Clemens JD. Epidemiology of cholera. Vaccine 2020;38:A31-40.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Orimbo EO, Oyugi E, Dulacha D, Obonyo M, Hussein A, Githuku J, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practices on cholera in an arid county, Kenya, 2018: A mixed-methods approach. PLoS One 2020;15:e0229437.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Talaei M, Holakouie-Naieni K, Rahimi-Foroushani A, Masoumi-Asl H. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people about foodborne outbreak in Isfahan city, Iran. J Food Hyg Saf 2015;1:39-45.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Mutreja A, Dougan G. Molecular epidemiology and intercontinental spread of cholera. Vaccine 2020;38:A46-51.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Taylor DL, Kahawita TM, Cairncross S, Ensink JH. The impact of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to control cholera: A systematic review. PLoS One 2015;10:e0135676.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Anetor GO, Abraham F. Knowledge of cholera and its prevention amongst urban residents of a district in Abuja: The pivotal role of health education. Res J Health Sci 2020;8:102-12.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Scobie HM, Phares CR, Wannemuehler KA, Nyangoma E, Taylor EM, Fulton A, et al. Use of oral cholera vaccine and knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding safe water, sanitation and hygiene in a long-standing refugee camp, Thailand, 2012-2014. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016;10:e0005210.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Rosdi MA, Rahman NA, Haque M. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding cholera among non-academic staff of International Islamic University Malaysia Kuantan medical campus. Bangladesh J Med Sci 2019;18 (3):527-35.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Burnett E, Dalipanda T, Ogaoga D, Gaiofa J, Jilini G, Halpin A, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea and cholera following an oral cholera vaccination campaign in the Solomon Islands. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016;10:e0004937.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Gallandat K, Huang A, Rayner J, String G, Lantagne DS. Household spraying in cholera outbreaks: Insights from three exploratory, mixed-methods field effectiveness evaluations. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020;14:e0008661.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Nauja RH, Bugoye FC, Rongo LM. Knowledge, perceptions and practices on cholera transmission and prevention measures among heads of household members in Kigamboni municipality, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Int J Res GRANTHAALAYAH 2020;7:28-48.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Williams L, Collins AE, Bauaze A, Edgeworth R. The role of risk perception in reducing cholera vulnerability. Risk Manag 2010;12:163-84.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Wahed T, Kaukab SS, Saha NC, Khan IA, Khanam F, Chowdhury F, et al. Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among urban high-risk groups: Findings of a cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh. BMC Public Health 2013;13:242.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Ncube A, Jordaan AJ, Mabela BM. Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cholera preparedness and prevention in Ga-Mampuru village, Limpopo, South Africa. Jamba 2016;8:164.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis 2011;17:2087.  Back to cited text no. 19
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and Me...
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed247    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded42    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal