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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 93-101

Cutaneous manifestations associated with COVID-19 in children: A systematic review


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
2 Project Coordinator, SCoE-SAM, State Centre of Excellence, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
3 Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
4 Additional Professor, Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
5 Professor, Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
6 Professor, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Anil Kumar Goel
Professor & Head, Pediatrics & Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1389_20

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Cutaneous manifestation of COVID 19 in children has not yet been reviewed systematically. Hence, this review gives the clinicians a future direction to be vigilant for skin presentations during pandemics. The Pubmed database used for literature search with keywords COVID 19, children, and skin in different combinations. Articles published in English with cases of age one month to 18 years were eligible. The outcome included varied aspects of cutaneous and COVID 19 infection. The authors did not register review protocol. Of 51 publications identified, 13 studies containing 149 children met the eligibility criteria. Acrally located erythematous maculopapular lesion was the most common finding in 138 children. The researcher reported Erythema multiforme, varicella like exanthem, and Kawasaki disease like presentations in the rest of the cases. The duration of the skin lesion was 1 2 weeks in 43%. Skin biopsy done in 18 patients revealed superficial and deep perivascular and peri eccrine lymphocytic infiltrate and lymphocytic vasculitis. RT PCR was positive13.8% cases. Serological markers for HSV, parvovirus B19 analyzed across various studies, were negative, except positive mycoplasma pneumonia in 2 of 20 cases tested. Clinicopathologic analysis established chilblains like lesion in 43% cases with no confirmed etiology like cold exposure, autoimmune dysfunction, drug reaction, or viral infection. The usual cephalo caudal spread of a viral exanthem was also missing. However, a low number of discussed cases was a limitation of the study. The absence of any confirmed etiology for such cutaneous manifestations, the possibility of COVID 19, should be explored and thoroughly evaluated and isolated during such a pandemic.


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