Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 3161
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 4784-4787  

Prevalence and awareness of varicose veins among teachers in Abha, Saudi Arabia


Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission28-Mar-2020
Date of Decision08-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance17-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Sep-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abdullah Dalboh
College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha
Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_490_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Teachers, compelled by the nature of their profession, are required to stand for a significant amount of time. This prolonged standing, being one of the risk factors for venous insufficiency, puts them at risk to develop varicose veins. Hence, as there is a need to educate and sensitize the teachers. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and awareness regarding varicose veins in school teachers. Methods: A cross sectional, questionnaire based study was carried out on 391 school teachers of the Aseer region, KSA, after obtaining ethical committee clearance and informed consent. Questions included personal, occupational, and varicose vein based questions. Responses were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 software. Frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: Forty two percent of the teachers were found to have varicose veins most of which were females. Around 62% of the teachers suffering from varicose veins were between 36 and 45 years of age. Participants who did regular exercises were less prone to varicose than irregularly exercising participants (P = 0.0001). No association was observed between smoking and varicose veins (odds ratio 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.05–0.44). Conclusion: Due to high prevalence of varicose veins among teachers, it is necessary to spread awareness regarding varicose veins among them and sensitize them with the methods to prevent its formation.

Keywords: Occupation, venous insufficiency, venous ulcers


How to cite this article:
Dalboh A, Alshehri NA, Alrafie AA, Bakri KA. Prevalence and awareness of varicose veins among teachers in Abha, Saudi Arabia. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:4784-7

How to cite this URL:
Dalboh A, Alshehri NA, Alrafie AA, Bakri KA. Prevalence and awareness of varicose veins among teachers in Abha, Saudi Arabia. J Family Med Prim Care [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 21];9:4784-7. Available from: https://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2020/9/9/4784/296294




  Introduction Top


The venous system of lower extremities consists of two distinct circulatory systems, which is anatomically separated by the deep fascia into the epifascial or superficial venous system and subfascial or deep venous system.[1] The deep veins are usually accompanied along with their arteries and drain the muscles and the bones. In contrast, the superficial veins run subcutaneously draining the muscles and the skin. The great saphenous vein and the small saphenous vein are the two major superficial veins, which finally drain into the deep veins either directly or through the perforating veins.[2] Varicose vein refers to large, tortuous, and dilated veins, resulting from venous valvular dysfunction. Incompetence of venous valves hinders the unidirectional upward flow of the blood, resulting in reflux and backflow in the veins.[3] Worldwide, the incidence of varicose veins varies between 10% and 60%. This incidence is higher in the Asian region as compared to up to 30% in the Western world.[4] Studies have shown the prevalence to be as high as 62% in Saudi Arabia, with increasing annual incidence of about 5% in females and 2% in males.[5],[6] In spite of being highly prevalent, varicose veins are not considered as a major health concern as it has low mortality. It is considered more of a cosmetic concern. However, varicose vein is one of the earliest manifestations of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Although it may not require treatment initially, if progressed it results in swelling, painful lower limb, and intense itching. In severe cases, these veins may rupture resulting in varicose ulcers. Therefore, these symptoms are associated with high morbidity and add up to healthcare expenses.[7] Prolonged standing and advancing age are considered to be the important factors for the development of varicose vein. Teachers spend quite a considerable amount of time standing mainly when taking lectures and conducting practical. Hence, prolonged period of standing over a period of time makes them prone to CVI, hence varicose veins. Therefore, there is a need to increase the awareness and educate the teaching faculties regarding varicose veins to maintain a good quality of life. Hence, this study was planned and carried out to study the prevalence of varicose veins among teachers and also assess their perception and awareness regarding varicose veins. One review study described that from the 720 selected articles, 37 stayed after full-text assessment. Community medicine monitors the prevalence of certain conditions among specific groups of family physicians (varicose veins among teachers), thus providing them with the necessary preventive measures; further, family physicians and community medicine can help patients who have been diagnosed with varicose veins for counseling to give them healthy lifestyle behavior.

Among the 21 investigations on lower-limb varicose veins (LLVV), delayed standing was essentially related to a higher danger of varicose veins with an edge most likely around > 3–4 h/day. One study depicted that new cases of varicose disease are increasing among those whose professions extended standing.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12]


  Subjects and Methods Top


This questionnaire-based study was carried at schools of the Aseer region between October 2019 and February 2020 Institutional ethical approval was obtained before the study from King Khalid University. A total of 391 school teachers were selected for the study after obtaining their consent. The purpose of the study was explained to all the participants. All their queries and concerns were addressed before administering the questionnaire.

A questionnaire was constructed which consisted of three parts. First part consisted of personal and demographic information such as age, gender, weight, height, address, and personal habits. The second part of the questionnaire consisted of workplace-related information which included duration of service and work responsibilities. The third part of the questionnaire included information regarding varicose veins. The questionnaire was peer reviewed and approved after consensus of all the authors. Once finalized, the questionnaire was prepared using Google Form in English and Arabic and mailed to all the participants.

Once the responses of all the participants were collected, it was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 25.0 (SPSS/PC; SPSS-25.0, Chicago, USA). All data were expressed as frequency and percentage. Significance was determined using t-test and Chi-square test. Linear regression analysis was done to calculate the odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


  Results Top


A total of 391 teachers had participated in the study, of which 69.3% were female and 30.7% were male [Table 1]. About 42% of the participants gave a positive history of varicosity in the lower limb, of which 5% were not aware of this condition. The incidence of varicose veins was higher in females which was around 37% (146) as compared to 14% (17) in males. Age-wise distribution of the participants is summarized in [Table 2]. It was observed that the highest case of varicose veins, i.e., 37.4%, was between 36 and 40 years of age followed by 27.4% between 41 and 45 years of age. One hundred and sixty participants were primary school teachers, 127 were secondary school teachers, and the rest 104 were intermediate school teachers. As shown in [Table 3], 46 out 104 (44.2%) intermediate school teacher and 69 of 160 (43.1%) primary school teachers were more prone to varicose veins as compared to 37.7% of secondary school teacher. Inquiring about the lifestyle revealed a strong association between lack of regular exercise and development of varicose veins (P = 0.0001). It was observed that 69% of the participants who did not exercise regularly developed varicose as compared to those who exercise for minimum 3 h in a week. No association was seen between smoking and development of varicose veins as only four teachers with varicose veins gave a history of smoking (odds ratio = 0.15; 95% CI 0.05–0.44) [Table 3].
Table 1: The frequency (percentage) of gender distribution and awareness of varicose veins in participants

Click here to view
Table 2: The frequency and percentage of participation in different age groups

Click here to view
Table 3: The distribution of participants (in frequency and percentage) according to their level of teaching, exercise, and smoking habits

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Although the arteries and the veins have the same three layers, namely tunica externa, media, and intima, the smooth muscle and connective tissue content of the veins is lesser, thus making their walls much thinner and allowing them to hold large amount of blood in comparison to arteries. However, venous return from the lower extremities against the gravitational force is maintained by interconnecting perforating veins, connecting the two sets of lower limb venous system: (1) the superficial and deep venous system and (2) the venous valves which are derived from the folds of the endothelium and connective tissue.[12],[13] These valves play a very important role in maintaining unidirectional blood flow from the caudal to cephalic end. Incompetency of these valves results in venous reflux causing dilation of venous walls, resulting in the formation of varicose veins. The symptoms associated with varicose veins may vary depending upon its size and extent. In the mildest form, it may have only cosmetic implications, and as it progresses, it is accompanied by dull aching pain, burning sensation, and pruritus. In severe cases, varicosity leads to severe cramps, lipodermatosclerosis, edema, hyperpigmentation, and ulceration.[14] Although genetic and environmental factors may play an important role in the development of varicose veins, some important risk factors identified are age, body weight, parity, and prolonged standing.[15] Teachers are required to spend good amount of their working time standing while taking lectures and practical sessions. This in turn makes them a potential candidate for developing varicose veins. Hence, this study was carried to assess the prevalence and awareness regarding varicose veins.

The prevalence of varicose veins in adults shows a wide range, i.e., from 10% up to 60%.[16],[17] Al-Shammeri et al. in their study reported a prevalence of 62% which was higher among females.[5] In our study, we observed a similar pattern. The total prevalence was 42%, and in females alone, it was 37%. This predisposition of females to develop varicose veins could be due to the effect of the hormones, estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone binds to its receptor on the venous walls, thereby reducing the synthesis of collagen and causing hypotonia of smooth muscle of the veins.[17] The most common age group for developing varicose veins was between 36 and 45 years of age. It was observed that around 65% of the participants were in this age category. Similar findings were reported in other studies. In one study, 62.5% of varicose vein patients were between 21 and 40 years of age, and in another study, 65% of the study population fell in this age group. This could be due to the fact that aging is associated with weakening and damage to the venous valves, which would make these patients prone to develop varicose veins. Healthy lifestyle requires a healthy diet and a regular exercise. In our study, it was observed that those participants who did a regular exercise of a minimum 3 h in a week had lower tendency to develop varicose veins as compared to those who were either irregular or did not perform any exercise (P = 0.0001). Similar findings were reported by Araujo et al.[18] Physical exercise provides strength to the muscles of the lower limb, especially the gastrocnemius which provides a good pumping action. Moreover, regular exercise maintains a good blood flow, thereby preventing venous stasis. Although smoking is considered as a risk factor for the development of venous insufficiency, there are conflicting reports regarding this. In our study, no association was found between smoking and varicose veins (odds ratio = 0.15; 95% CI 0.05–0.44). Similar finding was reported by Lee et al. as they too found no association between the two.[19] It was interesting to observe that majority of the participants, about 91%, were nonsmokers. This could be because most of the participants were females, and perhaps, the teachers had a better awareness regarding harmful effects of smoking. Such a low percentage of smokers could also be the reason for a negative association. The main new message of this study is that the schools teachers have to spend good number of hours standing which make them prone to develop varicose veins, so they are in danger, and family physicians should increase their efforts to find the remedies and solutions.


  Conclusion Top


Varicose veins or venous insufficiency is a common problem having a high prevalence. Schools teachers have to spend good number of hours standing which make them prone to develop varicose veins. Female teachers are more prone as to develop varicose veins as they undergo various hormonal changes during their reproductive life. In this view, it is necessary to increase their awareness, educate them, and sensitize them with various treatment options and lifestyle modification to prevent them from developing varicose veins.

Acknowledgment

We would like to acknowledge Muhammad Abid Khan for statistical support and valued contribution.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Caggiati A, Mendoza E, Murena-Schmidt R, Lattimer CR. Anatomy of the superficial veins. In: Mendoza E, Lattimer CR, Morrison N, editors. Duplex Ultrasound of Superficial Leg Veins. USA Salmon Tower Building New York City: Springer; 2014. p. 19-47.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
DePopas E, Brown M. Varicose veins and lower extremity venous insufficiency. Semin Intervent Radiol 2018;35:56-61.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Molnar C, Opincariu D, Benedek T, Toma M, Nicolescu C. Association between varicose veins anatomical pattern and procedural complications following endovascular laser photothermolysis for chronic venous insufficiency. Braz J Med Biol Res 2019;52:e8330.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Lin F, Zhang S, Sun Y, Ren S, Liu P. The management of varicose veins. Int Surg 2015;100:185-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Al Shammeri O, AlHamdan N, Al-Hothaly B, Midhet F, Hussain M, Al-Mohaimeed A. Chronic venous insufficiency: Prevalence and effect of compression stockings. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2014;8:231-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Bawakid KO, Al-Raddadi RM, Sabban SS, Alturky KA, Mohamed MS. Prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency in the Saudi adult population. Saudi Med J 2005;26:225-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Das K, Ahmed S, Abro S, Arain MS. Varicose veins. Prof Med J 2014;21:509-13.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Dey D, Jagadish B, Sahana M. A prospective study of etiopathogenesis, management and complications of lower limb varicose veins among the patients admitted in a rural tertiary healthcare centre. Int J Surg Sci 2020;4:79-84.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Huo Yung Kai, S., Ferrières, J., Carles, C., Turpin, M., Lapébie, F. X., Dutheil, F., Bura-Rivière, A., & Esquirol, Y. (2020). Lower limb venous and arterial peripheral diseases and work conditions: systematic review. Occupational and environmental medicine, oemed-2019-106375. Advance online publication. doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2019-106375 Ahead of print.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kalinin RE, Suchkov IA, Laut MV, Mzhavanadze ND, Shanaev IN. Varicose veins: A local or systemic hemodynamic disorder? J Diagn Med Sonogr 2020;36:328-34.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Rao BN, Pushpalatha R. A clinical study on varicose veins of lower limb, surgical management and functional outcome at a tertiary care hospital of South India. Int Surg J 2020;7:1051-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Black CM. Anatomy and physiology of the lower-extremity deep and superficial veins. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2014;17:68-73.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kucukguven A, Khalil RA. Matrix metalloproteinases as potential targets in the venous dilation associated with varicose veins. Curr Drug Targets 2013;14:287-324.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Piazza G. Varicose veins. Circulation 2014;130:582-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Selçuk Kapısız N, Uzun Kulaoǧlu T, Fen T, Kapısız HF. Potential risk factors for varicose veins with superficial venous reflux. Int J Vasc Med 2014;2014:531689.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Becker F. Current treatment of varicose veins. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2006;8:97-103.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Lenković M, Cabrijan L, Gruber F, Batinac T, Manestar-Blazić T, Stanić Zgombić Z, et al. Effect of progesterone and pregnancy on the development of varicose veins. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2009;17:263-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Araujo DN, Ribeiro CT, Maciel AC, Bruno SS, Fregonezi GA, Dias FA. Physical exercise for the treatment of non-ulcerated chronic venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;12:CD010637.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Lee AJ, Robertson LA, Boghossian SM, Allan PL, Ruckley CV, Fowkes FG, et al. Progression of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in the general population in the Edinburgh Vein Study. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2015;3:18-26.  Back to cited text no. 19
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
  Subjects and Methods
  Results
  Discussion
  Conclusion
   References
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed56    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded10    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal