Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Users Online: 2322
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1825-1833

A review of genetics of nasal development and morphological variation

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, Bahadur Shah ZafarMarg, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Tulika Tripathi
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, Bahadur Shah ZafarMarg, New Delhi - 110 002
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1265_19

Rights and Permissions

The nose is central in the determination of facial esthetics. The variations in its structural characteristics greatly influence the ultimate dentoskeletal positioning at the end of an orthodontic therapy. A careful insight into its developmental etiology will greatly aid the health care professional in identifying patient's real concern about the facial appearance. This in turn will aid in the fabrication of a better treatment plan regarding the end placement goals for the teeth and jaws in all the three dimensions of space. However, this important structure is often missed as a part of the diagnostic and treatment planning regime owing to the lack of meticulous understanding of its developmental etiology by the orthodontists. The development of the nose in the embryo occurs in pre skeletal and skeletal phases by a well-coordinated and regulated interaction of multiple signaling cascades with the crucial importance of each factor in the entire mechanism. The five key factors, which control frontonasal development are sonic hedgehog (SHH), fibroblast growth factors (FGF), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), wingless (WNT) proteins, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). The recent evidence suggests the association of various nasal dimensions and their related syndromes with multiple genes. The revelation of nasal genetic makeup in totality will aid in ascertaining the direction of growth, which will govern our orthodontic treatment results and will also act as a harbinger for potential genetic editing and tissue engineering. This article describes at length the morphological and genetic aspect of nasal growth and development in light of the gender and racial variability along with the emphasis on the importance of knowing these nasal features with regard to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded197    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal