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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1825-1833

A review of genetics of nasal development and morphological variation


Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, Bahadur Shah ZafarMarg, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Tulika Tripathi
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, Bahadur Shah ZafarMarg, New Delhi - 110 002
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1265_19

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The nose is central in the determination of facial esthetics. The variations in its structural characteristics greatly influence the ultimate dentoskeletal positioning at the end of an orthodontic therapy. A careful insight into its developmental etiology will greatly aid the health care professional in identifying patient's real concern about the facial appearance. This in turn will aid in the fabrication of a better treatment plan regarding the end placement goals for the teeth and jaws in all the three dimensions of space. However, this important structure is often missed as a part of the diagnostic and treatment planning regime owing to the lack of meticulous understanding of its developmental etiology by the orthodontists. The development of the nose in the embryo occurs in pre skeletal and skeletal phases by a well-coordinated and regulated interaction of multiple signaling cascades with the crucial importance of each factor in the entire mechanism. The five key factors, which control frontonasal development are sonic hedgehog (SHH), fibroblast growth factors (FGF), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), wingless (WNT) proteins, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). The recent evidence suggests the association of various nasal dimensions and their related syndromes with multiple genes. The revelation of nasal genetic makeup in totality will aid in ascertaining the direction of growth, which will govern our orthodontic treatment results and will also act as a harbinger for potential genetic editing and tissue engineering. This article describes at length the morphological and genetic aspect of nasal growth and development in light of the gender and racial variability along with the emphasis on the importance of knowing these nasal features with regard to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics.


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