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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 12  |  Page : 6209-6212

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and HIV/AIDS among tuberculosis patients in Kerala


1 Department of Community Medicine & Public Health, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
3 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Leyanna Susan George
Department of Community Medicine & Public Health, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Ponekkara, Kochi - 682 041, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1583_20

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Introduction: It is estimated that 10 million people fall ill with Tuberculosis (TB) every year worldwide. TB continues to be in the top 10 causes of death globally with India being the home to the world's largest number of TB patients. One of the major factors attributing to this is the presence of comorbidities such as Diabetes Mellitus and HIV/AIDS. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of comorbidities such as Diabetes mellitus & HIV/AIDS among the newly diagnosed TB patients in Kerala in 2019 and also to determine the factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using the secondary data from NIKSHAY portal. There were a total of 16,527 cases of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB cases reported from 14 districts of Kerala from January to September 2019. Using a checklist, data regarding the age, gender, type of case, Type of patient, site of disease, drug resistance were collected separately for TB patients suffering from Diabetes mellitus and HIV/AIDS. The data was then entered into Excel sheet and was analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results: Out of the total 16,527 study population, most of the patients were elderly above the age of 60 years (28.6%). The prevalence of Diabetes mellitus (22.6%) was higher among TB patients when compared to HIV/AIDS (1.2%). Males in the age group between 50-59 years were found to be significantly associated with TB- Diabetes Mellitus comorbidities. Diabetes was significantly associated with Pulmonary TB patients, while HIV/AIDS was significantly associated with extrapulmonary TB. Conclusion: Both Diabetes Mellitus and HIV/AIDS are comorbidities that have a strong impact on the diagnosis and management of Tuberculosis patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prevent these comorbidities from occurring along with the implementation of early diagnosis and appropriate management strategies. This study is of prime importance especially among Primary care Physicians who are treating TB patients on routine basis. They are particularly important in TB control since they are usually the first to meet a TB suspect, before diagnosis occurs. Both HIV/AIDS and Diabetes mellitus are immunocompromised conditions and these comorbidities can affect the treatment outcomes of TB. Primary care physicians are essential in detecting TB suspects and treating them, thus contribute significantly to reducing the burden of TB.


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