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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 12  |  Page : 5948-5953

Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized acute encephalitis syndrome children and their correlation with case fatality rate

Department of Community Medicine, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat, Assam, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bishnu Ram Das
Department of Community Medicine, Jorhat Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat - 781005, Assam
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1645_20

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Background: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in children contributes considerable morbidity and mortality in endemic region. A study was conducted to see the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized AES children and to find out if there is any correlation of clinico-epidemiological factors with case fatality rate (CFR). Methods: This hospital-based observational prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Assam, India from 16th May, 2019 to 15th May, 2020. We enrolled clinically diagnosed 140 hospitalized AES children consecutively as per WHO case definition. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples were tested for JEV-specific IgM antibodies. Results: Out of 140 AES children 84 (60%) were male and 5–12 years age group had the highest 79 (56.4%) number of cases. Primarily cases were from rural areas 132 (94.3%). In addition to fever, major clinical manifestations were seizures 114 (81.4%), altered sensorium 128 (91.4%), meningeal signs 62 (44.3%), and <8 GCS 42 (30%). CFR was 27.7%. Significantly high CFR was seen among AES children with GCS <8 (P-value 0.0001) and presence of meningeal signs (P-value 0.0007). A higher proportion of non-survivors 55.6% were non JE AES. Monthly incidence of AES/Death showed a peak in the month of July. Conclusion: AES in children is a significant public health problem in the study area with high CFR. Presence of GCS <8 and meningeal irritation are the important predictors of mortality in AES children. Preponderance of non-JE AES case fatality in children warrant further exploration and appropriate public health interventions.

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