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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 2389-2394

Vitamin D level and its determinants among Sudanese Women: Does it matter in a sunshine African Country?

1 Department of Pathology, Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan
2 Department of Pathology, The National Ribat University, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan
4 Department of Medical Laboratories and Blood Bank, National Ribat University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan
5 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University for Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
6 Combined Clinic, Radiation and Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK) and Department of Surgery, Alneelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
7 Radiation and Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK), Sudan
8 Department of Statistics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Tabouk, Saudi Arabia
9 Histo Center, Khartoum, Sudan
10 Department of Medicine and HIV metabolic clinic, Milton Keynes University, Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK
11 Armed Forces Centre for Psychiatric Care, Taif, Saudi Arabia
12 Nephrology Department, Noble's Hospital, Isle of Man IM44RJ, UK
13 Institute of Pathology, University of Erlangen, Germany

Correspondence Address:
Nazik Elmalaika Husain
Al-Salha St, Abusiaed, Faculty of Medicine, Omdurman Islamic University, PO. Box: 382, Omdurman - 12217, Khartoum
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_247_19

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Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide concern. The aim of the current study was to determine the vitamin D level and its contributing factors in Sudanese women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 251 Sudanese women attending Family Health Centers in Khartoum, Sudan were interviewed. Following the exclusion of confounding factors, samples from 190 women were analzsed. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D “25(OH) D” was quantified using competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Participants' age ranged from 18 to 85 years with a mean age (±SD) of 40.2 (±14.06) years. The mean (±SD) vitamin D level was 13.4 (±6.72) ng/ml, ranged 3.00–36.5 ng/ml and the median was 12.7 ng/mL. In total, 157 out of 190 (82.6%) had vitamin D serum levels below 20 ng/ml (deficient); of whom, 52 (27.4%) were in the age group 21–30 years (P value = 0.228). The correlation between vitamin D level and residence outside Khartoum, sun-exposed face and hands, and face and limbs in comparison with being completely covered were found to be statistically significant (p values 0.008, 0.023, and 0.036). Conclusion: This study displayed a high percentage (82.6%.) of vitamin D deficiency among women in Sudan, and this in part may indicate that sunshine alone cannot guarantee vitamin D sufficiency in the tropics. Family physicians in tropical countries should screen those with clinical presentations related to vitamin D deficiency.

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