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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 860-865

Histological spectrum of renal disease in HIV/AIDS patients with significant proteinuria: An Indian perspective

1 Department of Cardiology, Ujala Hospital, Kashipur, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Ujala Hospital, Kashipur, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bhupendra Verma
General Physician and Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Ujala Hospital, Kashipur - 244713, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_104_19

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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become epidemic in HIV/AIDS patients across Western and Eastern countries. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) has been consistently reported in studies from North America, Europe and African countries. However, studies from Asian countries are very sparse and differ strikingly in histological spectrum of renal disease, particularly in presence of HIVAN. Objectives: The study was carried out to in a teaching hospital from India to delineate the histological spectrum of renal disease and detect presence HIVAN in those with significant proteinuria (≥1gm/day). Patients and Methods: Urine analysis was done in 510 consecutive hospitalised HIV/AIDS patients after screening 640 such patients with age >18years. Patients with dipstick proteinuria ≥1+ were subjected to 24-hour urinary protein estimation. Renal biopsy was done in 10 patients with proteinuria ≥1gm/day. Results: Dipstick proteinuria ≥1+ was present in 29% patients. In patients undergoing kidney biopsy, the most frequent glomerular lesion was mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (30%) followed by HIVAN (20%). Tubulo-interstitial lesions were seen in 60% of biopsies. Pooled analysis of all the available kidney biopsy series from India revealed prevalence of HIVAN to be 16.5%. Conclusion: Contrary to the popular belief, HIVAN appears to be a common entity in this part of world too. High degree of clinical suspicion is required as diagnosis of HIVAN caries higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, an early diagnosis and timely management can improve prognosis in such patients.

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