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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 3600-3606

Staphylococcus aureus: A predominant cause of surgical site infections in a rural healthcare setup of Uttarakhand

1 Department of Microbiology, Govt. Doon Medical College, Dehrakhas, Patelnagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Surgery, Govt. Doon Medical College, Dehrakhas, Patelnagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
3 Department of Orthopedics, Govt. Doon Medical College, Dehrakhas, Patelnagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Deepak Juyal
Department of Microbiology, Government Doon Medical College, Dehrakhas, Patelnagar, Dehradun - 248 001, Uttarakhand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_521_19

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Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent the second most common type of healthcare-associated infections and remain a relatively common postoperative complication and the most common reason for readmission after surgery. SSIs have dire implications for the surgeon, patient, and institution which often require prolonged treatment, impose an economic burden and double the risk of patient mortality. Staphylococcus aureus is currently the most common cause of SSIs causing as many as 37% of cases of SSIs in community hospitals with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) of particular concern. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 in a rural tertiary care hospital of Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand state, India. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs from 269 patients clinically diagnosed with SSIs and were processed as per standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using a modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Out of 1294 patients, 269 (20.8%) were found to have SSIs and samples were collected from them. Out of a total of 269 samples, 258 (95.9%) yielded bacterial growth and 267 bacterial isolates were obtained. S. aureus (45.3%) was the commonest organism followed by Escherichia coli (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.7%), and Proteus species (4.9%). Antimicrobial profile of S. aureus revealed maximum sensitivity to rifampicin, linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and amikacin whereas ampicillin, cefazolin, and gentamicin were found to be least sensitive. Conclusion: S. aureus played a predominant role in the etiology of SSIs in this hospital with MRSA being a major concern as the treatment options for such resistant strains are limited. Reduction in SSI rates can lead to both better clinical outcomes for patients and cost savings for hospitals. Adherence to strict infection control measures, maintenance of proper hand hygiene and optimal preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative patient care can surely reduce the incidence of SSIs. A multifaceted approach involving the surgical team, microbiologist, and the infection control team is required to provide quality surgical services.

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